Lab 1

A Doubly Suspended Pendulum

bifilar_pic_1

Student Manual

The objective of this experiment is to determine the moment of inertia of a bi lar pendulum experimentally and then comparing it to the theoretical prediction. The investigation of the bi lar pendulum includes determining the accuracy of the moment of inertia inferred from the experiment and understanding the underlying experimental process.

Sample ResultsA graph showing relationship between time period and inverse of D (distance between the two filars)
Experiment Code1.19
VersionMay 12, 2017

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

DETAIL

Dynamics of Water Discharge from a Cylinder

Student Manual

This experiment demonstrates the dynamics of water owing out of a tank. Using the rate change of mass for an emptying cylinder, we investigate the application of Bernoulli’s equation and the resulting Torricelli’s theorem. We also observe the effects of constriction on the parcel of water owing out of the tank. Students will investigate fluid dynamics, pressure and will relish how a phenomena as simple as water owing out from a tank can lead to rich dynamics that can be explored mathematically.

Software CodeDownload
Sample ResultsLinear relationship between the square of velocity and height
Experiment Code1.18
Version13 April 2016

Further Readings and References

  • Physics for Scientists and Engineers with modern Physics , Raymond A. Serway, John W. Jewett, Jr. 465-483 , (2010).

Pictorial Procedure

By Azeem Iqbal | Lab 1
DETAIL

Verification of Gas Laws

Student Manual

This experiment provides a vivid introduction to the famous gas laws governing the behavior
of a gas under different conditions. Using modern sensors and data acquisition techniques we
will demonstrate and understand the quantitative prediction of these laws.

Software CodeDownload
Sample ResultsPressure vs. Temperature (Amontons’s Law)
Volume vs. Temperature (Charles’s Law)
Pressure vs. Volume (Boyle’s Law)
Finding the absolute zero from volume
Experiment Code1.17
Version22 September 2016

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

DETAIL

Energy Conservation in Two Dimensions

Student Manual

This experiment investigates the principle of energy conservation through the collision of two objects moving in two dimensions. Students will get familiar with the concept of translational collision and will probe the elasticity of a collision. The experiment also provides ample practice in calculating uncertainties and relative errors.

Sample ResultsA graph showing relationship between distance and angle
Experiment Code1.16
Version5 May 2014

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

Energypic1Energypic2Energypic3

DETAIL

Imaging Electron Trajectories: e/m Measurement with a Magic Eye and ImageJ

Student Manual

A magic eye is a simplistic triode tube that was used as a tuning indicator in radio receivers around the time of the World-War II. It has a bowl shaped anode coated with a phosphorescent material that produces a green glow when electrons strike on it. In this experiment, we measure the radius of curvature of the path of electrons in a magnetic field using a freeware, open-source image processor ImageJ, and calculate the charge-to-mass ratio of the electron.

Software CodeDownload
Sample ResultsImage processing in ImageJ
A graph for finding the e/m ratio
Experiment Code1.15
Version28 October 2015, 2015-v1

Further Readings and References

  • imageJ_Link
    ImageJ, U. S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA , W.S. Rasband , (1997-2012).
  • Error Analysis
    An Introduction to Error Analysis, University Science Books , John R. Taylor Ch. 8 , (1997).
  • Quantum Physics
    Exploring Quantum Physics through Hands-on Projects, John Wiley, Inc. , D. Prutchi, and S. Prutch 77 , (2003).

Pictorial Procedure

1. Make sure you have the needed apparatus

1. Make sure you have the needed apparatus

2. Make connections to the tube. The numbering on the white base will help. Consult manual for description of pins.

2. Make connections to the tube. The numbering on the white base will help. Consult manual for description of pins.

3. Set the magic eye filament and the field coil voltage.

3. Set the magic eye filament and the field coil voltage.

4. Set a value on the high voltage DC supply.

4. Set a value on the high voltage DC supply.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. Measure the magnetic field inside the coil using a Gauss-meter and its axial probe.

5. Measure the magnetic field inside the coil using a Gauss-meter and its axial probe.

6. Take photographs for analysis, for several voltages from the High voltage supply.

6. Take photographs for analysis, for several voltages from the High voltage supply.

DETAIL

Verification of de Broglie’s hypothesis by Electron Diffraction from Graphite

Student Manual

This experiment utilizes a highly evacuated electron diffraction tube to study the wave-like properties of electrons. The electrons are emitted by the thermionic emission and accelerated towards target by applying a very high potential (2000-5000 V). The target is a micro meshed nickel grid on which a thin layer of graphite is deposited. The electrons being diffracted through the graphite satisfy the Bragg’s condition and produce an interference pattern consisting of two rings. To measure the diameter of the ring, digital photographs are taken of the screen and analysis is done using a freely available software ImageJ. This experiment familiarize our students with digital photography and they will learn about its implications in experimental physics.

Software CodeDownload
Sample ResultsA graph for the diameter of the rings versus accelerating voltage to find the inter-planar spacing
Experiment Code1.14
Version29 September 2015, 2015-v2

Further Readings and References

  • Electron diffraction tube
    User manual for electron diffraction tube (3B Scientific)
  • Physics
    Physics, John Willey & Sons, Inc. , David Halliday, Robert Resnick and Kenneth S. Krane 993 , (1992).
  • Modern Physics
    Modern Physics, Thomson learning , Raymond A. Serway, Clement J. Moses, and Curt A. Moyer 152 , (2005).

Pictorial Procedure

1. Provided apparatus (assembled view)

1. Provided apparatus (assembled view)

2. Tube holder with retaining sliders

2. Tube holder with retaining sliders

3. Inserting electron diffraction tube into the fork-shaped tube holder

3. Inserting electron diffraction tube into the fork-shaped tube holder

4. Electron diffraction mounted on a tube holder

4. Electron diffraction mounted on a tube holder

5. Connecting an ammeter in series with anode

5. Connecting an ammeter in series with anode

6. Making ground terminal common with cathode

6. Making ground terminal common with cathode

7. Making electrical connections for heater (6.3V AC)

7. Making electrical connections for heater (6.3V AC)

8. Connecting cathode of the power supply to the 2mm connector of the electron diffraction tube

8. Connecting cathode of the power supply to the 2mm connector of the electron diffraction tube

9. Rings formed on the fluorescent screen

9. Rings formed on the fluorescent screen

10. Converting an RGB image to gray scale

10. Converting an RGB image to gray scale

11. Finding the length of the reference line

11. Finding the length of the reference line

12. Finding the radius of the thing using the plugin ThreePointRO

12. Finding the radius of the thing using the plugin ThreePointRO

DETAIL

Electron Energy Loss Investigation through the Nobel Prize Winning Franck-Hertz Experiment

Student Manual

Franck-Hertz experiment is a profound way of looking at the quantization of energy levels in an atom. A triode tube filled with mercury vapors is employed to accelerate electrons that in turn excite mercury atoms and energy transfer can be observed only for certain discrete values of energy of the colliding electrons. This implies that energy transfer to and from an atom can only be in fixed amounts, and hence a discrete atomic structure.

Sample ResultsFranck Hertz Plots at different temperatures
Experiment Code1.13
Version15 May 2015, 2015-v1

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

1. Connecting control unit to the tube.

1. Connecting control unit to the tube.

2. Connecting control unit to the tube.

2. Connecting control unit to the tube.

3. Connecting the outputs to the scope.

3. Connecting the outputs to the scope.

4. Temperature measurement.

4. Temperature measurement.

Observations in Comsoft.

Observations in Comsoft.

DETAIL

Observing Hall Effect in Semiconductors

Student Manual

This experiment introduces students to the Hall Effect which is a fundamental principle of magnetic field sensing. Students will measure Hall coefficient and carrier charge concentration in a given semiconductor crystal which will help them to understand important concepts in semiconductor physics. In this experiment students will also learn the relationship between current and magnetic field in an electromagnet as well as in a semiconductor material.

Sample ResultsHall effect plots
Experiment Code1.12
Version21st September 2015, 2015-v2

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

1. Provided equipment for this experiment.

1. Provided equipment for this experiment.

2. Connection of electromagnet with power supply.

2. Connection of electromagnet with power supply.

3. Placement of the Hall probe in between the pole pieces of electromagnet.

3. Placement of the Hall probe in between the pole pieces of electromagnet.

4. Side view of printed circuit board (PCB) and Hall probe placed vertically in between the pole pieces of electromagnet.

4. Side view of printed circuit board (PCB) and Hall probe placed vertically in between the pole pieces of electromagnet.

5. Top view of printed circuit board (PCB) and Hall probe placed vertically in between the pole pieces of electromagnet.

5. Top view of printed circuit board (PCB) and Hall probe placed vertically in between the pole pieces of electromagnet.

DETAIL
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