Lab One Tasks

The swinging rod

Student Manual

Pendulums come in various forms and varieties. Here we introduce a swinging rod whose pivot could be changed. Does the time period change and how? Could you build a theoretical model, invoking some basic concepts in mechanics and angular motion? This experiment typifies the exercise of observing a natural phenomenon and finding an underlying principle that explains the observation. In the end the prediction and outcomes are compared. Best of luck. No sample results posted this time.

Experiment Code 1.19A
Version 2017-v1

Further Readings and References

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Pictorial Procedure

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Radioactivity: Effect of Absorbers

Student Manual

Natural radioactivity usually results from nuclear reactions. In radioactivity, some heavier nuclei spontaneously transform into different nuclides. This results in emission of one or more kinds of radiations such as alpha, beta and gamma rays. Out of these gamma rays are short wavelength electromagnetic waves, hence uncharged and highly penetrating inside matter. The purpose of this task is to find the penetration of γ rays through lead or aluminum sheets. We will be using Co-60 as the γ ray source.

Sample Results sample results
Experiment Code 1.10A
Version 8 December 2015-2015-v1

Further Readings and References

No references found

Pictorial Procedure

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Measuring the Speed of Sound

Student Manual

The objective of this task is to measure the speed of sound using the ‘time of flight’ technique. The apparatus comprises a meter rod, two microphones and a speaker that are connected to the computer’s sound card. This is shown in Figure 1. The microphones are separated by a distance d which can be varied, in steps of 10 cm (say 100 to 10 cm).

Software Code Download
Sample Results sample results
Experiment Code 1.9A
Version 2nd january 2016-2016-v1

Further Readings and References

No references found

Pictorial Procedure

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Finding the Earth’s Magnetic Field by Twisting Magnets

Student Manual

The objective of this experiment is to use the oscillation of magnets in order to determine the earth’s magnetic field B. When we suspend magnets vertically pressing upon a wire, allow these to align in the north-south direction, and then slightly nudge these magnets, they will start oscillating in a horizontal plane. In fact, the magnets twist due to the torque exerted by the earths magnetic field.

Experiment Code 1.8A
Version 9 December 2015- 2015-v1

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

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Using a Force Sensor to Measure Vaporization of Liquid Nitrogen

Student Manual

The philosophy of the present task is derived from Experiment 1.7 except that the vaporization will be measured using a force sensor (instead of a mass balance). See Fig. 1. Use the provided software (Logger Lite) to connect to the force sensor through the provided interface. Record the mass loss of liquid nitrogen as a function of time. Then systematically supply energy to the liquid using a heating lament. Measure the power delivered to the heater and the duration of heating. Switch the heater o , and allow the nitrogen to re-establish its natural background vaporization rate. Plot the mass loss and use it to determine the latent heat of vaporization.

Sample Results The mass gradient of Liquid Nitrogen using force sensor
Experiment Code 1.7A
Version 26 November 2015, 2015-v3

Further Readings and References

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Pictorial Procedure

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Using Phase Relationships to Find an Unknown Capacitance in an RC Circuit

Student Manual

This task deals with the determination of an unknown capacitance inside an RC series circuit. You are provided with a Labview file (rcphase.vi) that communicates with a circuit already laid out for you on a breadboard. You can control the input frequency (preferably between 1 and 50 Hz) and will observe the sinusoidal voltages developed across the resistor R and the input voltage. These waveforms will be shifted in time through ∆t. Hence there will be a phase difference ϕ = ω∆t where ω = 2πf, and f is the input frequency in Hz.

Software Code Download
Experiment Code 1.6C
Version 6 January 2016, 2016-v1

Further Readings and References

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Pictorial Procedure

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Finding an Unknown Resistance in Series with a Capacitor

Student Manual

An experiment has been set up for you. The arrangement is similar to what is provided in
Experiment 1.6A. We have a resistor R in series with a capacitor C. The capacitor has a
known capacitance. Measure it using the provided meters. A sinusoidal input of amplitude
Vo, and frequency f , is applied and the voltage amplitudes across the resistor VR are measured at various frequencies. The inputs and outputs are through a computer equipped with a data acquisition board. A Labview le is also provided and can be downloaded from the website.

Software Code Download
Experiment Code 1.6B
Version 10 December 2015-2015-v1

Further Readings and References

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Pictorial Procedure

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Reproducing Measurements of a Time Period with Different Instruments

Student Manual

The measurement of a physical quantity could be achieved using different instruments or
measurement techniques. Whether two experiments yield comparable values determines the
‘reproducibility’ of measurements which is distinct from the concept of ‘repeatability’. In the present task, you are required to measure the time period of a simple pendulum using two sets of equipment: a stopwatch and a timer.

Experiment Code 1.2C
Version 29 November 2015, 2015-v1

Further Readings and References

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Pictorial Procedure

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