X-rays are produced when inner shell transitions take place inside atoms. This demonstration uses Bremsstrahlungan X-ray tube, X-ray
detector and multi-channel analyzer for looking at both characteristic and continuous radiation. The various aspects of the atomic structure that are highlighted with this apparatus include the following.

  • The value of Planck’s constant or the Rydberg’s constant is calculated from the K alpha peaks emitted by a known element. The values match the true values when the effect of electronic shielding of the nuclear is taken into account.
  • The nature and maximum energy of the Bremsstrahlung radiation is directly observable.
  • Characteristic X-rays from different kinds of elements present in a standard sample can be observed.
  • Moseley’s law can be directly verified.