condensed matter

Synthesis of High Temperature Superconductor Using Citrate Pyrolysis and Observing the Meissner Effect

Student Manual

This experiment provides an introduction to superconductivity including synthesis of superconductor material. The main objective is to prepare the high critical temperature (Tc) YBa2Cu3O7-δ superconductor, as it is among those materials have Tc near to the boiling point of liquid nitrogen. A chemically derived citrate pyrolysis technique is used for this purpose. The superconducting state will be verified using Meissner’s effect. In this way, the relation between superconductivity and magnetism can also be explored.

Experiment Code 2.18
Version 19 August 2013

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

Super2nSuper3nSuper1n

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Low temperature conductivity

Student Manual

This experiment gives you an idea of how to make conductivity measurement in low temperature regime using a closed cycle helium cryostat, compressor, vacuum unit, chiller/re-circulator and temperture controler. The cryostat can achieve temperatures in the vicinity of 7K when subject to a vacuum of 1 mtorr. Materials like conductors, semiconductors and superconductors are subjected to such measurements.

Software Code Download
Sample Results Resistivity versus temperature plot for Aluminum
Resistivity versus temperature plot for Copper
Hardware Manual Introduction to laboratory cryogenics (Janis Research)
User manual for cryodyne refrigerator (CTI-Cryogenics)
Experiment Code 2.17

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

DETAIL

Ellipsometry

Student Manual

Ellipsometery is used to determine the thickness and dielectric properties (optical constants) of thin films by analyzing the polarization changes that take place in light upon reflection off these films. In this experiment, different combinations of substrates and thin films will be analyzed to determine the thicknesses and optical constants of the films using the ellipsometer.

Hardware Manual Ellipsometry Manual
Experiment Code 2.16

Further Readings and References

No references found

Pictorial Procedure

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Synthesis and Ferroelectric Properties of KNO3 Films

Student Manual

This experiment illustrates the ferroelectric behavior of KNO3 due to change in temperature which is intimately connected to the change in crystal structure.

Sample Results Ferroelectric loop at 130˚C
Another instance of a ferroelectric loop at 110˚C
Ferroelectric loop at 80˚C
Simulation results when sample capacitor is a conventional linear capacitor
Experiment Code 2.13
Version 20 August 2010

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

Fe1Fe2Fe3Fe4

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Band Structure and Electrical Conductivity in Semiconductors

Student Manual

This experiment is designed to calculate the energy band gap in the intrinsic region and the temperature dependence of the majority carrier mobility in the extrinsic region of semiconductors.

Sample Results Resistance versus temperature plot of carbon resistor
Resistivity versus temperature plot of Ge
Resistance versus temperature plot of UJT
Experiment Code 2.10
Version 9 November 2016, 2016-v2

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

Bandgap_1Bandgap_2GesampleUJTsample

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