measurements

When are two measurements “same” or “different”? Example of conical shaped pendulums

Student Manual

We have designed a simple experiment using conical shaped pendulums, to see where experiment matches theory. It is customary in practical work to ask when two measurements “match” and when do they “differ”. Furthermore we need to find agreement of experiment with theory. This experiment aims to quantify the similarity (or difference) between various measurements.

Experiment Code1.21
Version2018-v1

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

DETAIL

Introduction to the Lock-in Amplifier

Student Manual

In experiments, we repeatedly come across situations where we want to measure the response of a system and the response is feeble or is buried in excessive noise. Through this experiment we introduce the art of precise measurements using a lock-in amplifier which is an integral component of several experiments in the physics lab.

Hardware ManualLock-in Amplifier
Optical Chopper
Photodiode
Experiment Code2.2
Version28 April 2010

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

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