nuclear

Radioactivity: Effect of Absorbers

Student Manual

Natural radioactivity usually results from nuclear reactions. In radioactivity, some heavier nuclei spontaneously transform into different nuclides. This results in emission of one or more kinds of radiations such as alpha, beta and gamma rays. Out of these gamma rays are short wavelength electromagnetic waves, hence uncharged and highly penetrating inside matter. The purpose of this task is to find the penetration of γ rays through lead or aluminum sheets. We will be using Co-60 as the γ ray source.

Sample Resultssample results
Experiment Code1.10A
Version8 December 2015-2015-v1

Further Readings and References

No references found

Pictorial Procedure

DETAIL

Measuring Muon Lifetime

Student Manual

In this experiment, we will measure the lifetime of cosmic ray muons using high-speed electronics such as Nuclear Instrumentation Modules (NIM), Time-to-Amplitude Convertor, Multi-Channel Analyzer and Picoscope.

Sample ResultsThe histogram obtained for the muon lifetime experiment using ROOT.
Raw data with the fitted exponential curve in MATLAB.
Amptek DppMCA software interface.
Experiment Code2.20
Version30 November 2014

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

NIMmoduleCascadeMuoncircuit

DETAIL

Gamma-ray spectroscopy

Student Manual

In this experiment, we will analyse energy spectrums of Cobalt-60 and background radiation and calculate the mass absorption coefficient for lead. Also the different ways in which gamma ray photons interact will be studied.

Sample ResultsA calibrated Cobalt-60 spectrum for a voltage of 800 V and for a coarse gain value of 4.
A calibrated energy spectrum of background radiation taken at 750 V and a coarse gain value of 8 built over a time interval of around 80 hrs.
Mass absorption coefficient is the p1 parameter in this case.The graph is of ln(I/I_o) vs thickness using Co-60 peak with E=1.33 MeV.
Hardware ManualORTEC gamma ray spectroscopy manual
Experiment Code2.19
Version4 November 2014

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

Gamma2Gamma3Gamma1

DETAIL

Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

Student Manual

Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is used to analyze a sample’s elemental composition. Using the energies of characteristic X-rays, Moseley’s Law will be verfied which is a direct evidence for the existence of Atomic number.

Sample ResultsEDXRF raw spectrum for stainless steel sample
ROIs for the elements of stainless steel and their detail in ADMCA
Processed spectrum for stainless steel sample
Concentration analysis table in XRS-FP
Moseley’s Law
Moseley’s Law Plot taken on 7 June 2016
Hardware ManualAmptek’s EDXRF
Mini-X, X-ray tube
XR100CR X-ray detector
PX4
XRF-XRS-FP software guide
Experiment Code2.14
Version25 August 2015, 2015-v1

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

ApparatusBremsstrahlungSchemeofsoftwaresX-rayproductionnewX-raytubeEDXRFspectrum

DETAIL

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