thermal

Using a Force Sensor to Measure Vaporization of Liquid Nitrogen

Student Manual

The philosophy of the present task is derived from Experiment 1.7 except that the vaporization will be measured using a force sensor (instead of a mass balance). See Fig. 1. Use the provided software (Logger Lite) to connect to the force sensor through the provided interface. Record the mass loss of liquid nitrogen as a function of time. Then systematically supply energy to the liquid using a heating lament. Measure the power delivered to the heater and the duration of heating. Switch the heater o , and allow the nitrogen to re-establish its natural background vaporization rate. Plot the mass loss and use it to determine the latent heat of vaporization.

Sample Results The mass gradient of Liquid Nitrogen using force sensor
Experiment Code 1.7A
Version 26 November 2015, 2015-v3

Further Readings and References

No references found

Pictorial Procedure

DETAIL

Modeling the Response of a Thermistor

Student Manual

A thermistor is a semiconductor used to measure temperature. Its resistance depends on
the temperature. The goal of the present experiment is to determine the resistance R as a
function of temperature T. You are expected to come up with a mathematical model that
can predict the temperature from the measured resistance.

Software Code Stein_hart_data
Experiment Code 1.3A
Version 29 Novemebr 2015, 2015-v1

Further Readings and References

No references found

Pictorial Procedure

DETAIL

Temperature oscillations in a metal: Probing aspects of Fourier analysis

Student Manual

This experiment illustrates the basic concepts of Fourier Analysis using simple experimental setup. We will also measure the propagation speed of thermal oscillations, analyze the heat equation and calculate the diffusivity of the material under consideration.

Software Code LabVIEW Data Acquisition file
Sample Results Data sets acquired with a heater pulsed at 5 mHz and data taken at a sampling rate of 1 Hz
Discrete fourier transform of data collected over 4500 seconds at 0.005 Hz. Note the presence of odd harmonics only.
Complete temperature profile at 0.005 Hz. Dynamic equillibrium is reached after 2400 seconds
Discrete fourier transform of data collected over 5000 seconds at 0.02 Hz. Note that the harmonics vanish more quickly
Experiment Code 2.3
Version 13 May 2015, 2015-v1

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

Temp_v2015_1 Temp_v2015_2 Temp_v2015_3 Temp_v2015_4

DETAIL

Verification of Gas Laws

Student Manual

This experiment provides a vivid introduction to the famous gas laws governing the behavior
of a gas under different conditions. Using modern sensors and data acquisition techniques we
will demonstrate and understand the quantitative prediction of these laws.

Software Code gas-laws-labview
Sample Results Pressure vs. Temperature (Amontons’s Law)
Volume vs. Temperature (Charles’s Law)
Pressure vs. Volume (Boyle’s Law)
Finding the absolute zero from volume
Experiment Code 1.17
Version 22 September 2016

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

DETAIL

Measurement of Planck’s constant using a light bulb

Student Manual

This innovative experiment gives you an introduction of blackbody radiation and Planck’s radiation law. The experimental objective involves the determination of the numerical value of Planck’s constant using incandescent light bulb as a source of blackbody. Students will also practice error propagation and learn how to measure important parameters using weighted fit of a straight line.

Sample Results Logarithmic plot for finding the value of gamma
A graph of photo-intensity verus temperature to determine Planck’s constant
Experiment Code 1.11
Version 5 January 2016, 2016-v1

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

1. Provided apparatus

1. Provided apparatus

2. This is how you'll measure the room temperature resistance of an incandescent light bulb

2. This is how you’ll measure the room temperature resistance of an incandescent light bulb

3. An assembly of optical components on the optical rail

3. An assembly of optical components on the optical rail

4. Place optical components inside the black box and insert cylindrical tube (having bulb fitted inside) into the black box

4. Place optical components inside the black box and insert cylindrical tube (having bulb fitted inside) into the black box

5. The incandescent light bulb is connected to the variac through an ammeter in series

5. The incandescent light bulb is connected to the variac through an ammeter in series

6. Circuitry of the setup. A voltmeter is connected in parallel configuration while an ammeter in series

6. Circuitry of the setup. A voltmeter is connected in parallel configuration while an ammeter in series

7. Rotate dial of the variac in clockwise direction to get variable voltages

7. Rotate dial of the variac in clockwise direction to get variable voltages

8. Connecting a photodetector to the digital oscilloscope

8. Connecting a photodetector to the digital oscilloscope

9. Adjusting voltage sensitivity range of a digital oscilloscope

9. Adjusting voltage sensitivity range of a digital oscilloscope

DETAIL

Thermal and Electric Properties of a Light Bulb

Bulb2

The aim of the investigation was to probe the electrical and thermal properties of a commercial incandescent light bulb and quantify its temperature using its resistance. The light bulb was also assessed if it behaves like a blackbody and thus follows the Stefan Boltzmann law, for its radiant power and temperature. A thermopile was used to measure the thermal energy emitted by the bulb’s surface, and this in turn was used to compare the transferred thermal power with the temperature of the filament and the bulb’s surface. The results showed that although the filament temperature and surface power do not correlate positively, comparison between surface power and temperature yields a relationship more consistent with Stefan-Boltzmann relationship.

DETAIL

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Liquid Nitrogen and Specific Heats of Metals

Student Manual

In this experiment, we have used a simple and intuitive setup to measure the latent heat of vaporization of liquid nitrogen and the specific heat capacity of a material. We will learn about the thermal properties of materials including solids, liquids and gases. Furthermore, we will be exposed to the safe handling of cryogens that are routinely used in low temperature physics.

Software Code Mass Record
Sample Results Latent Heat for Liquid Nitrogen
Experiment Code 1.7
Version 4 November 2015, 2015-v3

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

DETAIL

Heat Transfer and Newton’s Law of Cooling

Student Manual

In the present experiment, the students will heat a metallic rod in a temperature-regulated furnace or on a hot plate and place it inside a cavity approximating a black body cavity. The temperature on the surface of the heated object as well as inside the cavity will be monitored with time. The rate of cooling will be determined and the impact of forced convection currents will also be investigated. The students will learn how to interface temperature sensors with the computer. In the course of the measurements, the students will also verify Newton’s law of cooling as a special case.

Software Code Heat Transfer
Sample Results Forced and natural convection
Forced and natural convection, linearized plots
Experiment Code 1.3
Version 17 January 2015, 2015-v1

Further Readings and References


Pictorial Procedure

1. Provided apparatus

1. Provided apparatus

2. Cavity with cooling fan cable

2. Cavity with cooling fan cable

3. Measuring the mass of a cylinder

3. Measuring the mass of a cylinder

4. Measuring the diameter of a cylinder

4. Measuring the diameter of a cylinder

5. Cylinder inside the steel box

5. Cylinder inside the steel box

6. Attaching thermocouple to the cylinder

6. Attaching thermocouple to the cylinder

Heat_7h

8. Always use gloves and tong to remove the heated cylinder from steel box

8. Always use gloves and tong to remove the heated cylinder from steel box

9. Placing a heated cylinder inside the cavity

9. Placing a heated cylinder inside the cavity

10. Attaching E2 thermocouple to the clamp

10. Attaching E2 thermocouple to the clamp

11. Attaching a labeled E1 thermocouple inside the cavity and E2 with the cylinder

11. Attaching a labeled E1 thermocouple inside the cavity and E2 with the cylinder

12. Preparing Labview file for forced convection

12. Preparing Labview file for forced convection

13. Experimenatl setup for demonstarating forced concvection alongwith thermocouple calibration

13. Experimenatl setup for demonstarating forced concvection alongwith thermocouple calibration

14. Closing the base of the cavity

14. Closing the base of the cavity

15. Labview file for radiative and convective losses

15. Labview file for radiative and convective losses

16. Setup for simultaneous radiative and convective losses

16. Setup for simultaneous radiative and convective losses

DETAIL

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